Final Paper Outline for IDC 6010 Has @realDonaldTrump Accelerated the Decline of Presidential Campaign Rhetoric, if so, Should We Be So Surprised?

I. Is there a decline? Flyover of negative Presidential campaign rhetoric

  • a. Pre-Television / Social Media Era
  • b. Modern Era
  • c. Current Election Campaign

II. Political Campaign Strategy

  • a. FUD: Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt
  • b. Political Communication Strategy

III. The People

  • a. Writers
  • b. Followers (potential voters)

IV. Next Election?


Literature Reviewed

ABC News. (2006). Top Bush Speech Writer Resigns. Retrieved at

Bike, W., (1998). Negative Campaigning: Advice for Attacker and Attackee. The Heartland Institute. Retrieved at

Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media. Review of Educational Research, (4). 445. Retrieved from

Cho, J., & Ha, Y. (2012). On the Communicative Underpinnings of Campaign Effects: Presidential Debates, Citizen Communication, and Polarization in Evaluations of Candidates. Political Communication, 29(2), 184-204. doi:10.1080/10584609.2012.671233

Cornell University. The Gettysburg Address; Transcript of Cornell University’s Copy. Retrieved at

Craik, Henry, ed. English Prose. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916;, 2010. Retrieved from

Cummins, J., (2008). Dirty Campaigning in the Roaring Twenties: Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith. Mental Floss. Retrieved at

Eddins, G., (2016). Persuading the People: Presidential Campaigns. Our White House.Org. Retrieved at

Irvine, C. (2008). Adolf Hitler ‘planned propaganda cable TV’. The Telegraph. Retrieved from

Journalist’s Resource. (2016). Negative political ads and voter effects: Research roundup. Retrieved at

Kaid L. (n.d.). Political Processes and Television, Museum TV. Retrieved from

Kraus, S. (1996). Winners of the first 1960 televised presidential debate between Kennedy and Nixon. Journal Of Communication. (4), 78.

Lariscy, R., (2012). Why negative political ads work. CNN. Retrieved at

Lazer, D. & Tsur, O., (2016). I. You. Great. Trump.*. Politico Magazine. Retrieved at

Lee, J., & Quealy, K., (2016). The 239 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Libresco, L., (2016). The World’s Favorite Donald Trump Tweets. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from

Mark, D., (2006). The 10 Dirtiest Political Races in U.S. History. Retrieved at

Panagopoulos, C. (2016). All about that base: Changing campaign strategies in U.S. Presidential elections. Party Politics, 22(2), 179-190. doi:10.1177/1354068815605676.

Petroff, W., (2011). What American president(s) had the best speech writer(s)? Who are they and why are they the best? Quora. Retrieved at

Phillips, A., (2015). The surprising genius of Donald Trump’s Twitter account. The Washington Post. Retrieved from

Polsby, N. W., & Wildavsky, A. B. (2000). Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. New York: Chatham House Publishers.

Shlaes, J. (2012). Eisehower Scholars Examine Ike’s Role with the Media. The National Press Club. Retrieved from

Thompson, D., (2014). Presidential Speeches Were Once College-Level Rhetoric—Now They’re for Sixth-Graders. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Wilson, R., (2016). Why 2016 Will Be the Most Negative Campaign in History. Morning Consult. Retrieved at


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