Final Paper Outline for IDC 6010 Has @realDonaldTrump Accelerated the Decline of Presidential Campaign Rhetoric, if so, Should We Be So Surprised?

I. Is there a decline? Flyover of negative Presidential campaign rhetoric

  • a. Pre-Television / Social Media Era
  • b. Modern Era
  • c. Current Election Campaign

II. Political Campaign Strategy

  • a. FUD: Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt
  • b. Political Communication Strategy

III. The People

  • a. Writers
  • b. Followers (potential voters)

IV. Next Election?

 

Literature Reviewed

ABC News. (2006). Top Bush Speech Writer Resigns. Retrieved at http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Politics/story?id=2116251&page=1.

Bike, W., (1998). Negative Campaigning: Advice for Attacker and Attackee. The Heartland Institute. Heartland.org. Retrieved at https://www.heartland.org/policy-documents/negative-campaigning-advice-attacker-and-attackee.

Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media. Review of Educational Research, (4). 445. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~gmswan3/609/Clark_1983.pdf

Cho, J., & Ha, Y. (2012). On the Communicative Underpinnings of Campaign Effects: Presidential Debates, Citizen Communication, and Polarization in Evaluations of Candidates. Political Communication, 29(2), 184-204. doi:10.1080/10584609.2012.671233

Cornell University. The Gettysburg Address; Transcript of Cornell University’s Copy. Retrieved at http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/gettysburg/good_cause/transcript.htm.

Craik, Henry, ed. English Prose. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916; Bartleby.com, 2010. Retrieved from   http://www.bartleby.com/209/633.html.

Cummins, J., (2008). Dirty Campaigning in the Roaring Twenties: Herbert Hoover vs. Al Smith. Mental Floss. Retrieved at http://mentalfloss.com/article/19897/dirty-campaigning-roaring-twenties-herbert-hoover-vs-al-smith.

Eddins, G., (2016). Persuading the People: Presidential Campaigns. Our White House.Org. Retrieved at http://www.ourwhitehouse.org/persuading.html.

Irvine, C. (2008). Adolf Hitler ‘planned propaganda cable TV’. The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/3239289/Adolf-Hitler-planned-propaganda-cable-TV.html.

Journalist’s Resource. (2016). Negative political ads and voter effects: Research roundup. Retrieved at http://journalistsresource.org/studies/politics/ads-public-opinion/negative-political-ads-effects-voters-research-roundup.

Kaid L. (n.d.). Political Processes and Television, Museum TV. Retrieved from http://www.museum.tv/eotv/politicalpro.htm.

Kraus, S. (1996). Winners of the first 1960 televised presidential debate between Kennedy and Nixon. Journal Of Communication. (4), 78.

Lariscy, R., (2012). Why negative political ads work. CNN. Retrieved at http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/02/opinion/lariscy-negative-ads/.

Lazer, D. & Tsur, O., (2016). I. You. Great. Trump.*. Politico Magazine. Retrieved at http://www.politico.com/magazine/gallery/2016/04/donald-trump-twitter-account-history-social-media-campaign-000631?slide=4

Lee, J., & Quealy, K., (2016). The 239 People, Places and Things Donald Trump Has Insulted on Twitter: A Complete List. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/01/28/upshot/donald-trump-twitter-insults.html?_r=0

Libresco, L., (2016). The World’s Favorite Donald Trump Tweets. Five Thirty Eight. Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-worlds-favorite-donald-trump-tweets/

Mark, D., (2006). The 10 Dirtiest Political Races in U.S. History. Reason.com. Retrieved at http://reason.com/archives/2006/10/13/the-10-dirtiest-political-race.

Panagopoulos, C. (2016). All about that base: Changing campaign strategies in U.S. Presidential elections. Party Politics, 22(2), 179-190. doi:10.1177/1354068815605676.

Petroff, W., (2011). What American president(s) had the best speech writer(s)? Who are they and why are they the best? Quora. Retrieved at https://www.quora.com/What-American-president-s-had-the-best-speech-writer-s-Who-are-they-and-why-are-they-the-best.

Phillips, A., (2015). The surprising genius of Donald Trump’s Twitter account. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2015/12/10/reading-6000-of-his-tweets-has-convinced-us-donald-trump-is-a-social-media-master/.

Polsby, N. W., & Wildavsky, A. B. (2000). Presidential Elections: Strategies and Structures of American Politics. New York: Chatham House Publishers.

Shlaes, J. (2012). Eisehower Scholars Examine Ike’s Role with the Media. The National Press Club. Retrieved from http://www.press.org/news-multimedia/news/eisenhower-scholars-examine-ike%E2%80%99s-role-media.

Thompson, D., (2014). Presidential Speeches Were Once College-Level Rhetoric—Now They’re for Sixth-Graders. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/10/have-presidential-speeches-gotten-less-sophisticated-over-time/381410/.

Wilson, R., (2016). Why 2016 Will Be the Most Negative Campaign in History. Morning Consult. Retrieved at https://morningconsult.com/2016/05/23/2016-will-negative-campaign-history/.

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